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Evidence from cross national analyses. Population Studies 49 2 : Frenzen, P. Hogan The impact of class, education and health care on infant mortality in a developing society: The case of rural Thailand. Demography 19 3 Guilkey, D.

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Murphy Estimation and testing in the random effects probit model. Journal of Econometrics Mroz, and L. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Hanushek, E. Journal of Political Economy 1 Hausman, J.


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Econometrica 46 6 : Hedeker, D. Gibbons A random-effects ordinal regression model for multilevel analysis. Biometrics Hermalin, A. Seltzer, and C. Lin Transitions in the effect of family size on female educational attainment: The case of Taiwan. Comparative Education Review 26 2 Jensen, E. Ahlburg, and M. Williamsburg, Va.

Kelley, A. Ahlburg, A. Kelley, and K. Mason, eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Kurian, G. New York: Facts on File Publications. Lightbourne, R. Cleland and J. Hobcraft, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lloyd, C. Cassen, ed.


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Blanc Children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population and Development Review 22 2 McClelland, G. Bulatao and R. Lee, eds. Volume 1 : Supply and Demand for Children. New York: Academic Press. Mensch, B. Arends-Kuenning, A. Jain, and M. Montgomery, M. Lloyd The effects of family planning programs on maternal and child health. Myhrman, A. Olsen, P. Rantakallio, and E. Laara Does the wantedness of a pregnancy predict a child's educational attainment?

Family Planning Perspectives 27 3 : Parish, W. Willis Daughters, education and family budgets: Taiwan experiences. Journal of Human Resources 28 4 Postlethwaite, T. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Rosenzweig, M. Schultz Fertility and investments in human capital: Estimates of the consequences of imperfect fertility control in Malaysia. Wolpin Testing the quantity-quality fertility model: The use of twins as a natural experiment. Econometrica 48 The Journal of Human Resources 28 2 Volume 1 : Afghanistan to France.

New York: United Nations. Volume 2 : Gabon to Norway. Volume 3 : Oman to Zimbabwe. Varian, H. Second edition. New York: W. Westoff, C. Goldman, and L. Columbia, Md. Wolfe, B. Haveman, D. Ginther, and C. An The 'window problem' in studies of children's attainments: A methodological exploration. Journal of the American Statistical Association 91 Second Basic Education Development Project.

Report No. Zuravin, S. Family Planning Perspectives 23 4 In this appendix, we develop a formal decision model in which parents choose the number of their children and the level of educational investment in each child, taking into account the implications of alternative choices about children for their own consumption levels. The model is primarily a vehicle for illustrating in a formal manner the theoretical points made in the main text.

It is therefore a highly simplified representation of the decision problem. In particular, the model is set in a one-period decision framework, in which both fertility and education choices are made at the outset of the reproductive life cycle. A more realistic and interesting approach, as discussed in the main text, would be to allow for multiple decision periods, so that parents would have the opportunity to learn about the educational abilities of their children and might adjust subsequent fertility and consumption in light of the accumulated information.

Such dynamic decision models are extremely complex to analyze, however, and as our purpose is mainly to illustrate key points, we do not pursue this generalization here. There are conceptual benefits to be gained from a formal mathematical approach, even if this representation is understood to be no more than a stylized and simplified depiction of the decision problem.

Perhaps the principal benefit is in showing that parental desires-as expressed in their wanted fertility levels, their desired pattern of educational investments in children, and their preferred level of own consumption-are jointly determined by a common set of exogenous factors. These factors include the level of parental income, the prices and related resource constraints parents face, and the fixed features of parental preferences. We therefore think of wanted fertility and wanted education as being joint outcomes of a common decision process: they each depend on the exogenous determinants, but do not depend, in any causal sense, on each other.

The level of wanted fertility is not a causal determinant of the level of wanted children's schooling, nor is the level of wanted schooling a causal determinant of wanted fertility. In this framework, it is not meaningful to ask how wanted fertility affects wanted levels of children's education, nor is it appropriate to put the question the other way. The dimensions of wanted fertility and wanted children's education are closely associated, to be sure, but this association is not, in itself, a causal one.

Rather, the association reflects the joint dependence of fertility and education on the exogenous causal determinants mentioned above. Where unwanted fertility is concerned, however, one can ask about the causal consequences. This is because unwanted fertility can be regarded as an exogenous shock that displaces parental consumption and human capital investment strategies from what would otherwise have been optimal.

These consequences might well depend on the level and age pattern of the wanted births that had already occurred at the time of the exogenous shock. Such earlier births likewise, earlier child investments would function as predetermined constraints or sunk costs that could limit the scope and nature of any post-shock adjustments on the part of parents. Moreover, in a dynamic decision problem in which the spacing and arrival of wanted births is not fully controllable by parents, it becomes conceptually appropriate to ask how the timing of wanted births affects subsequent fertility, child schooling, and parental consumption.

Likewise, one can ask how imperfectly predictable factors, such as a child's educational abilities, might affect the parents' fertility as these factors become known. Given that this chapter is mainly empirical in nature and based on cross-sectional data sets, we have chosen not to pursue the theoretical possibilities afforded by dynamic modeling. The empirical concerns are indeed difficult to address.

If lagged, predetermined values of ex ante choice variables are to be included in the empirical model, a means must be found to protect the estimates against the effects of persistent omitted variables, which would be expressed first in the lagged values of the choice variables and again in the current values being modeled. Thus, demanding data requirements must be met to permit consistent estimation of such models. Longitudinal data are required, at a minimum, and the DHS data used here simply do not meet these requirements.

With richer data, one could begin to ask a richer set of causal questions. We begin by separating the one-period parental utility function into two factors. The first factor, denoted here by U, measures the utility that parents derive from the number of children and their education. We follow Behrman in using the constant elasticity of substitution CES specification, that is,. Here n is the total number of children. The parameter p of this subutility function serves to index the degree of parental aversion to inequality in the distribution of resources among their children.

In other words, there is a utility return to increasing the number of children only if the. In addition to U, the utility of the parents is affected by their own consumption C. We assume that the full utility function can be expressed in a Cobb-Douglas form,. The full parental utility function is therefore a composite in which a CES factor, having to do with child services, is nested within a Cobb-Douglas function in which the two arguments are the child services aggregate U and parental consumption C.

The budget constraint for this problem allows for both discretionary and exogenous components of expenditure on children.


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Each child is assumed to require a fixed amount w in childrearing expenditures; in addition, a child-specific net price p i is associated with each unit of education s i. The rationale for making the net price of education child-specific is to account for differences across children in the expected future benefits of schooling.

We could accomplish the same goal by elaborating the model in the time dimension, with the nature of the future benefits made explicit, but the current specification should suffice for the purposes of illustration. The utility maximization problem can now be divided into discrete stages that correspond to the alternative numbers of children that parents could contemplate having.

The Cobb-Douglas specification for the full utility function implies that with n given,. In future work, we will study more general specifications that do not impose this requirement. The properties of the CES framework see Varian, , for details imply that each child will receive. We refer to this as the schooling demand equation, where by demand we mean demand that is conditional on a particular fertility level n. The conditional indirect utility derived from child services is then. This is a conditional indirect utility function, giving maximum parental utility as a function of the number of children, which is itself a choice variable.

Using this expression, the task that remains is to search over discrete values of n to find the optimal value—the level of fertility that maximizes parental utility. In the main text, we refer to the optimal value of n as wanted fertility. Since n is discrete, no analytic expression for wanted fertility is available, but for given parameter values, it is straightforward to find the level of wanted fertility by numerical means.

It is in this sense that wanted fertility and schooling are jointly determined. As Behrman demonstrates in a related context, parental aversion to inequality has a potentially important role to play in allocating educational investments among a set of children. This role emerges in situations in which the net price of schooling, p i , differs across children, so that there is an economic incentive to invest differentially.

When parents are wholly indifferent to inequality, educational resources are concentrated in the child whose net price of schooling p i is lowest.

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When they resist such a concentration of resources, by contrast, educational investments tend to be spread more equally among children, although the child with the lowest net price will generally continue to receive more in the way of parental investment apart from the extreme case of Leontief preferences. The discrete nature of fertility also influences patterns of child investment.

In addition to reducing their own consumption, parents faced with lower income have the option to adjust to the situation in two ways that affect their children: on the extensive margin, by reducing the desired number of children, and on the intensive margin, by leaving the number of children unchanged and reducing educational investments. After a certain point, however, income will be low enough that parents will find it necessary to reduce fertility.

A one-child reduction in fertility frees an amount w in exogenous childrearing expenses. Once that fertility reduction has been made, a portion of the freed w can be used to increase children's schooling, that is, to increase it relative to what it was before the fertility reduction took place. As far as we are aware, these potentially complex responses have not been much studied, whether from a theoretical or an empirical perspective. The conceptual approach developed here can be used to study the consequences of unwanted fertility for parental consumption and children's educational investments.

Returning to the. This compensation can then be interpreted as a summary measure of parental motivation to avoid unwanted fertility. Alternatively, it can be interpreted as the monetized welfare costs again from the parents' point of view that are imposed by unwanted fertility.

Central Data Catalog

In the main text, we focus on two distinct concepts—excess fertility and unintended fertility. As noted, the former is measured by the extent to which a woman's cumulative fertility exceeds her expressed ideal family size at the time of the survey. Reports on ideal family size are elicited by the following DHS question: ''If you could go back to the time you did not have any children and could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be? Within that window, the intendedness of each birth is determined by asking the mother to think back to her feelings at the time she was first pregnant with the child and to report whether she wanted the pregnancy at that time.

Effects of the Number and Age of Siblings on Educational Transitions in Sub‐Saharan Africa

If the pregnancy was wanted, she is asked whether it was wanted then or later. Concerns about the measurement of unwantedness have focused primarily on the problem of ex post rationalization. Rationalization is a potential problem when respondents who already have children are asked questions about desired or ideal family size or about the unwanted status of specific surviving children McClelland, In particular, the questions on unintended fertility are asked on a child-by-child basis, and in answering them, the woman may feel that she is being required, in effect, to affix a label to each child.

Yet a child whose conception was unwanted might have grown up to become a loved and much "wanted" member of the family. The woman might therefore feel some reluctance to label the child's conception as unwanted, and the approach might produce underreports of unwanted conceptions.

No similar bias would be expected to distort estimates of birth timing. The DHS questions were worded so as to minimize ex post rationalization, and there is some evidence from experimental studies in Peru and the Dominican Republic Westoff et al. The fact that substantial numbers of women report excess fertility and unwanted births appears to be ample proof that family-size desires represent considerably more than rationalization.

Another form of rationalization could lead to biases in the opposite direction. Rosenzweig and Wolpin have conjectured that women may be overly optimistic at the time of pregnancy about the endowments of their unborn children. They suggest that retrospective reporting of unwantedness at the time of pregnancy may produce an overestimate rather than an underestimate of the actual level of unwantedness prior to birth.

The possibilities for ex post revisionism, regardless of the direction of the possible bias, are what make the kind of longitudinal data available in the Finnish survey ideal for the study of the consequences of unwantedness. Apart from considerations of recall error and ex post rationalization, a woman's reports on the intendedness of a particular child's conception should not change over time. Such reports are based on the memory of feelings held at a particular fixed point in the past. We do, however, expect to observe changes over time in measures of excess fertility for an individual woman, even if her actual fertility remains unchanged.

A woman's desire for children, as expressed in her ideal family size, can be altered by changes in economic, marital, or health circumstances, or by the receipt of new information or knowledge, even if her underlying preferences are held constant McClelland, Thus a woman could report her last birth as being wanted at the time of conception and during the same survey interview report excess fertility in the present.

She might do so if, in the interim, she faced deteriorating economic conditions, gained new skills in the labor market that increased the opportunity costs of childbearing, absorbed new ideas about the advantages of small families from the media, or lost a husband through death or divorce. Similarly, a woman who reports not having wanted a particular pregnancy in the past could report no excess fertility in the present for a variety of reasons, including an improvement in her own or her community's economic circumstances that allows her to afford more children than previously, the arrival of a new husband who is eager for her to have children with him, or a change in government policies.

It is therefore quite difficult to determine from the survey questions themselves whether a woman is inconsistent in her responses. The fact that a woman currently views her family size as excessive does not necessarily mean that any particular child was unwanted at the time of conception, nor does it mean that any particular child is unwanted now.

Excess fertility indicates only that the woman now sees her family size as being too large in relation to current ideals. Of course, if fertility ideals and intentions are wholly transitory, their measurement as of a particular point in time will not provide a reliable guide to either past or future behavior. Recent evidence from Peru suggests that desired fertility is reasonably stable in the short run Mensch et al.

In this study, over 80 percent of women reinterviewed after 3 years provided consistent responses to a question about future fertility intentions. When responses to the question about future childbearing desires from the DHS were compared with responses to the same question in the follow-up survey, 72 percent of women gave the exactly the same response. Of those who did not want more in but had wanted more in , roughly half had had a child in the interval or had experienced a marital disruption; thus an additional percent gave consistent answers. Therefore, roughly 80 percent of women gave consistent answers between the two surveys.

This provides some evidence to suggest that women's fertility desires do not change wholesale over 3 years. Casterline et al. In the terms we have employed, the Lightborne measures are measures of excess fertility. Bongaarts compared such excess fertility measures with alternative, forward-looking measures based on the desirability of a next birth.

He found strong correlations between these two alternatives, but much weaker correlations between the desire for a next birth and the wantedness status of recent births. Evidently, the alternative measures must tap different concepts; in addition, they are differentially affected by changing events and by recall or misreporting error. To obtain a sense of the empirical overlap between measures of excess and unintended fertility, we examined the DHS data from our four study countries.

We investigated whether women who say they currently have excess fertility also report as unwanted at conception those recent births whose parity exceeds the mother's current ideal. The proportion of such recent births reported to be unwanted at the time of conception ranges from 35 percent in the Philippines to 65 percent in the Dominican Republic. In light of the above discussion, it should be clear that such differences in the fertility measures can be interpreted in various ways.

One possibility among many is that ideal family size may have declined over the 5 years preceding the survey Bankole and Westoff, , perhaps as economic circumstances changed. Thus some children who were wanted prior to their birth may now be found in a family that is larger than their mother would view as ideal under her present circumstances. In summary, it appears reasonable to proceed with the excess and unintended fertility measures, each taking a place in the analysis. These measures are fundamentally different in character, and as just shown, they are sufficiently different empirically to warrant separate consideration.

This volume assesses the evidence, and possible mechanisms, for the associations between women's education, fertility preferences, and fertility in developing countries, and how these associations vary across regions. It discusses the implications of these associations for policies in the population, health, and education sectors, including implications for research. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

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Review Of Concepts And Literature. Consequences of Unintended and Excess Fertility. Consequences of Unintended or Excess Fertility. TABLE Incidence of Unintended and Excess Fertility Among Women Variable Dominican Republic Egypt a Kenya Philippines Number of women 7, 8, 7, 15, Number of births in last 5 years Percent 0 63 41 48 61 1 21 30 27 21 2 13 22 21 14 3 3 7 4 4 Of women with births in last 5 years At least 1 unwanted birth At least 1 unwanted or 18 28 20 21 mistimed by more than 2 years 28 n.

Model Specification And Estimation. Data Construction. Estimation and Endogeneity Bias. Incidence of Unintended and Excess Fertility. TABLE Incidence of Unintended or Excess Fertility: Summary of Results Characteristic Dominican Republic Egypt Kenya Philippines Woman's education Negative and significant Negative and significant Positive and significant to mixed Negative and significant In union Positive and significant Positive and significant Positive and significant Positive and significant Spouse's education Mixed and weak Weak and negative Mixed and weak Weak to positive Standard of living significant Negative and significant Weak and not Positive at low levels, then negative Negative and significant Urban residence Positive and significant to mixed Not significant Nairobi negative and significant; otherwise not significant Weak and mixed.

Effects of Unintended and Excess Fertility. Spouse, secondary schooling. Primary travel time minutes. Secondary travel time minutes -. Elements of the One-Period Model. The budget constraint can then be expressed as. Solving the Utility Maximization Problem. Some Properties of the Solution. Parental Responses to Unwanted Fertility. Although Bankole and Westoff consider recent births, the aggregate. Generalized residual coefficient, secondary school equation z stat. Login or Register to save! Stay Connected! Wantedness at conception.

Dominican Republic Egypt a Number of births in last 5 years Percent. Of women with births in last 5 years. At least 1 unwanted birth At least 1 unwanted or. The aim of this study is to measure the impact of reproductive health services RHS on indicators of health and well-being. The research examined the impact of decreased availability of RHS as a result of the U. Developing countries have faced the paradoxical dual burden of malnutrition and obesity. Recent studies have documented the long-term economic effects of maternal and infant malnutrition, however, understanding the intergenerational transmission of health capital is important to understand the intergenerational transmission of poverty.

Using household and individual-level longitudinal survey data, the research examines the effects of the famine on the health and education outcomes of children whose parents were born or conceived during the to Chinese Famine. This project looks at the ways in which population growth affects economic well-being through changes in the quality and level of environmental resources in India. This project explores the impact of financial crisis on the poor in Indonesia. Data shows in the first year of the crisis, poverty rose by between 50 and percent, real wages declined by around 40 percent, and household per capita consumption fell by 15 percent.

The crisis affected the poorest, the middle-income households, and households in the upper part of the income distribution in Indonesia. This study explores the impact of severe obstetric complications and the costs of treating such complications on economic, social, and physical well-being, and examines whether such events lead to sustained impoverishment in the longer term three to four years. The broad objective of the study was to investigate declining marriages in post-apartheid South Africa.

The specific objectives were threefold. First, using the independent surveys from to and employing the Age-Period-Cohort Model, the study disentangled marriage trends into age, period, and cohort effects to determine whether the change in marital patterns observed in the post-apartheid period was a real shift in marital behavior and not just a trend driven by change in sampling designs and erratic fluctuations. In the s, the average Indonesian woman had between five and six children. By the mids, the average number of children had declined to close to three per woman.

This research investigates the impact of the Indonesian Family Planning Program on the labor force participation decisions and contraceptive choices of women. This project tests the assumption that poor reproductive health outcomes adversely affect the chances of poor women, their children, and families to escape poverty through a set of channels, including poor general health status, increased medical costs, and low education status. It examines differences in care needs and provision across these countries whether care is differentially provided by gender across all SAGE countries and hypothesizes that women are more likely to provide care than men across all SAGE countries.

This project focuses on the early nutritional status of children and its effect on adult productivity by using longitudinal data to link early nutritional intake, nutritional status, and adult outcomes including productivity. A model of human capital investment and activity choice is used to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments and occupational choice.

These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males. The study assesses the trend and pattern of mortality and fertility rates and investigates the direction of causality between fertility and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa SSA. While many regions of the world are already experiencing declines in mortality and fertility rates, and increases in economic growth and development, the mortality rate is still high in SSA, the fertility rate is rigidly downward, and economic growth is also very low.

The social and developmental implications of this situation pose a serious challenge for the fight against the disease and its economic impact on families and the nation. This study aims to evaluate the cost of care, social consequences, and coping strategies of AIDS orphans living with their surviving parent or another family in selected rural and urban towns of southwestern Nigeria for the purpose of providing data that may be used to formulate policies and programs that will address the problems of AIDS orphans and related consequences. Young people in South Africa face a high risk of HIV, teenage pregnancy, school dropout, and unemployment, and are further disadvantaged by the actual or potential loss of one or both parents to HIV and conditions of poverty, inequality, and food in security.

These circumstances make the transition from childhood to adulthood especially difficult, and many of the most disadvantaged are in danger of falling even farther behind socially and economically due to illness, stigma, and the loss of key supportive adults such as parents and teachers. How is the relationship among health, population size, and economic outcomes influenced by local conditions?

What are the biological, social, and economic structures that underlie the effects of health and fertility on aggregate economic variables? There is an unequal sex ratio in India, which is due to a traditionally strong preference for sons, excess mortality for girls, and declining fertility. The rate of sex-selective abortions has risen due to legal abortion from , access to prenatal sex determination, and the increasing sex ratio at birth in India.

Previous research on sex-selective abortions has ignored the interactions between fertility, birth spacing, and sex-selection. Antiretroviral ARV drug treatment offers promise as an effective policy intervention to improve the lives of the nearly 6 million South Africans who are HIV-positive. This project assesses how systematic bias may cause traditional cross-country regression analyses to understate the economic benefits of fertility reduction.

The bias results from the common observation that reductions in fertility do not affect all parts of the income distribution equally. This means there are an increasing number of males who will fail to marry and face old age without the support normally provided by wives and children. The research quantifies the opportunity cost of unsafe abortion in terms of individual health and costs as well as health care and societal costs.

Preventing unsafe abortions would reduce morbidity and mortality among Ugandan mothers and benefit society through increased productivity because young mothers are at the core of agricultural production and child care in Uganda. Using experimental and non-experimental micro-level data from four different countries, the project measures the effects of investments in family planning and reproductive health services on a broad array of indicators of the health and well-being of women, their children, and their families.

The research team assesses the causal effects of programs focused on choices about family planning and reproductive health care, on the health and well-being of women and children and on the status of women pertaining to their economic productivity, savings, and investment choices. This research program aims to increase the understanding of how economy-wide policy interventions aimed at reducing fertility contribute to long-term economic growth. Specifically, we employ an economic-demographic simulation model to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect of reductions in fertility on output per capita.

This study attempts to quantify both by using the timing of plague epidemics as an instrument for labor supply, and estimates the elasticity of substitution between fixed and nonfixed factors in preindustrial England. Using data on rent in preindustrial England on population, the researcher analyzes the elasticity of these factors. In many Asian, Arab, and African countries, most rural women live with their mother-in-law during early-married life, and during years when women make vital fertility and human capital decisions, they are under the supervision of the mother-in-law.

The study explores the effects of this intergenerational-within-gender power dynamic on the welfare of women and children of India and Bangladesh and finds that the health consequences of coresidence during pregnancy results in the mother-in-law being a valuable resource during this period. Much development aid for the past 40 years has been devoted to family planning based on the assumption that information and supply constraints for contraceptive services result in larger families than desired.

Consequently, the welfare of each child in a large family suffers due to more limited household resources. However, it is not clear that larger families experience worse outcomes than smaller families, especially if older children play a role in household production or if the marginal cost of child investment is low. The study assesses the effect of health improvements on output per capita using a simulation model which analyzes the direct effect of health on worker productivity as well as indirect effects such as schooling, size and age-structure of the population, capital accumulation, and crowding of fixed natural resources.

The results show that the effects of health improvements on income per capita are substantially lower than those that are often quoted by policymakers, and the period before any beneficial effects of an improvement in health are visible in GDP per capita can be long. There is not enough rigorous empirical evidence to support claims that access to reproductive health services and technologies impact the economic lives of women and children, or that decisions about contraceptive use and fertility respond to improvements in economic opportunities.

This study focuses on the effects of contraceptive availability on economic outcomes, male involvement and bargaining effects, and peer effects on adoption, with the goal to impact policy by providing evidence on whether and how to promote access to and use of modern contraceptives, especially in Africa where male involvement in family planning is actively debated. This study applies exploratory spatial data analysis ESDA and spatial panel regression models to examine country-level variation in fertility rates in China. There has been an increase in young adult mortality in South Africa over the last 20 years.

The demographic consequences of these statistics includes an increase in the number of orphans and bereaved parents. In early , more than , refugees fled the genocides of Burundi and Rwanda into Kagera, a region in northwestern Tanzania. Previous research has focused on displaced individuals, whereas this study examines the effect of forced displacements on the host communities.

This research explores the possible impact of HIV status on individual-level economics in a marginalized population. The objective of this study was to examine the consequences of the AIDS epidemic on economic development, using a population model. This population model identified the main channels through which AIDS, while raising mortality rates of young adults and lowering fertility rates, affected populations over time.

With rapidly declining fertility and increased longevity, the age structure of the labor force in developing countries has changed rapidly. Changing relative supply of workers by age group and by educational attainment can have profound effects on labor costs. When sons move away from their village, the general hypothesis is that parents become more willing to marry their daughters to someone who lives nearby in order to secure care support in old-age when necessary, a result of a missing market for care.

Several subprojects were produced as a result of this research program. One paper analyzes the distribution of fertility rates across the world using parametric mixture models. Paula Bronstein. January PopPov Project Map This map is is a visual representation of the countries where the PopPov network of researchers have studied social, health, and economic issues.

Income Shocks, Health, Family Planning and Investments in Children: In the Context of Bangladesh This research studies the intersection of trade liberalization in the garment district as it relates to income shocks and nutrition health impacts. The Determinants, Dynamics, and Details of Female Labor Market Participation in the Developing World This research will examine female labor market participation in the informal economy, and how that interacts with fertility outcomes, entrepreneurial success, and business community formation in Ghana.

Can Savings Accounts Save Lives? Financial Products for Improving Sexual and Reproductive Health The goal of this project is to see if providing women with financial independence in the form of mobile phone savings accounts can help them better manage risk in their daily lives.

Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa Trade has been posited as a key factor in economic development, and economists have argued that trade leads to higher income growth rates. Spousal Resource Control, Fertility, and Intra-Household Conflict This research addresses the impact of economic enforcement of the wife within the household, as related to the use of contraception, fertility, and incidents of sexual, emotional, and physical abuse.

Evaluating the Impact of a Disruption in Publicly Provided Contraceptive Supply on Fertility and Health Outcomes in the Philippines This research explores new evidence on the role of subsidized contraceptives in influencing fertility behavior. An Analysis of Population Dynamics, Human Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth in Nigeria The study investigates the effects of population dynamics on the economic growth in Nigeria for the period of to by specifically determining the effects of fertility and infant mortality rates on economic growth.

Productivity, Family Planning, and Reproductive Health: An Interdisciplinary Study in Burkina Faso The ultimate aim of this project is to conduct multidisciplinary research on the impact pregnancy on income-generating and non-income-generating production in Burkina Faso; and to investigate how investments in reproductive health might contribute to reducing poverty and fostering economic development and equity. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Tanzania Teenage pregnancies are common in many low-income countries, but the reasons for why teenage girls become pregnant are not well understood.

Fertility and Intra-Household Bargaining Responses to the Public Provision of Childcare in Rio de Janeiro This research addresses the mechanisms through which fertility responds to improved access to childcare in Brazil. Gender of Children, Education, and Occupational Choice in Nepal Nepal is one of the countries hypothesized to have a strong preference for a son. Determinants of Fertility and Poverty in Ghana This dissertation examines the causes of fertility variations in both Ghana and the U. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Environment This research looks at the long term effects of maternal fasting during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.

Implications of High Fertility in Developing Countries—A Multilevel Analysis Based on DHS Data Few studies have examined the effects of high fertility or population growth at a subnational level, and there has been very little interest in separating effects of aggregate-level fertility from effects of individual fertility.

Essays on Water in Developing Countries In Indonesia, only 2 USD per person is invested annually in water and sanitation, far less than other low and middle-income countries. Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Zambia: Investigating Poverty, Equity, and Demand Effects Despite country level programs and international goals which aimed to improve maternal health, indicators of maternal health in Zambia continue to show poor maternal and child health.

Fertility and Poverty: The Role of Gender and Reproductive Health Fertility has dropped below the replacement level in an increasing number of countries, though Kenya is an exception to this general picture. Fertility Outcomes and Childrens Roles in Household Risk in Rural West Africa Fertility and the number of children in a household can influence the way that a vulnerable household deals with critical risks and shocks.

Fertility, Schooling and Work Transitions of Young Women in Africa: Understanding Determinants and Outcomes The transition from adolescent to adulthood is a critical time in the lives of young women. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.

Abstract Abstract This study examines parents' decisions about educating some or all of their children beyond primary school in rural Thailand. Citing Literature. Volume 62 , Issue 2 June Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID.